Police said they had charged Delwar Hossain and his wife, as well as security guards and managers, over the blaze at the Tazreen factory in Dhaka.
It was the country's deadliest garment factory fire. In April 2013 the Rana Plaza factory collapsed killing 1,135.
"Delwar and his wife Mahmuda Akter... and 11 others have been charged with death due to negligence," police investigator AKM Mohsinuzzaman Khan told the AFP news agency.
The multi-floor Tazreen Fashion factory, in the Ashulia district on the outskirts of the capital, supplied clothes to a variety of Western retailers including US giant Walmart.
The fire sparked protests from thousands of workers who claimed the building had been unsafe to work in; Delwar Hossain denied the allegations.
The incident was subsequently overshadowed by the collapse of the Rana Plaza garment factory, also in Dhaka's suburbs, in April 2013, one of the world's worst industrial accidents.
Garment workers took to the streets of Dhaka to protest over their conditions after the fire at Tazreen factory and the collapse of the Rana Plaza factory
The disasters shone a light on the poor safety standards of...